DEC Scan Journal : Volume 36 Issue 2
2017 Volume 36, Issue 2 32 Contents Editorial Learning & teaching Research Share this Resource reviews (Laurillard, 2012). Harasim (2012) states the solution to pedagogical transformation lies in a solid strategy for online collaboration. Laurillard (2012) advises that technology is an enabler only if the learning is carefully designed. Effective pedagogic design is difficult for online collaborative authoring and discussion environments that are intended to produce shared output. This is due to different expectations and subsequent differing roles of students and educators. Callaghan and Bower (2012) and Casey and Evans (2011) reveal factors affecting behaviour and learning in social networking sites and focus on pedagogical implications and in doing so challenge traditional modes of teaching and learning. More recent research by Tondeur, van Braak, Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2016) concludes that effective technology integration should not be a stand-alone event, and that teachers’ beliefs about good education are a critical dimension in developing professional development and meaningful use of technology in education. Choi and others (2016) advise that collaboration and communication among students from different countries will not be achieved without cultural and social support and shared research on Globally Connected Classroom GCC-STEM activities. The model they developed, based on constructivist theory, uses global learning communities and has great potential in contributing to global STEM education and collaborative learning (Choi, et al., 2016). Emerging approaches to digital scholarship question what knowledge is, how it is gained and how it is shared. Veletsianos and Kimmons (2012) share a new form of scholarship called ‘Networked Participatory Scholarship’ that reflects scholarly practice and participatory technologies. Changes from didactic to active learning and collaborative techniques have prompted a new theory of learning, Online Collaborative Learning (OCL) that focuses on ‘collaborative learning, knowledge building and Internet use as a means to reshape formal, non-formal and informal education in the Knowledge Age’ (Harasim, 2012, p. 80). Yet despite internet adoption in the real world, teachers are reluctant to adopt new practices using this in the educational world (Harasim, 2012). Collaborative learning and pedagogical change Pedagogical capacity, an educator’s repertoire of teaching strategies and partnerships for learning, has changed and will continue to change as technology becomes more pervasive to include content delivery and consumption as well as collaboration and creation of new knowledge and a focus on the process of learning (Fullan et al., 2014). The research of John Hattie (2012) shares new pedagogies where the educator has a new role as activator, including educator-student relationship, reciprocal teaching, and feedback (Fullan et al., 2014). According to McLoughlin and Lee (2010), pedagogical change requires knowledge of appropriate teaching methods and awareness of the learner experience while using Web 2.0 technologies and social media. A wiki, for example, can be pedagogically ineffective if it does no more than replicate a publishing environment Collaboration in an online digital world Pedagogical approaches to online collaborative learning The internet has changed and continues to change the way learners connect by providing new forms of interaction and social construction. The current generation has grown up collaborating using online technologies (Tapscott, 2009) and these provide a platform for engaged learning, deeper understanding and exciting collaborative learning outcomes. The educator’s role is critical for making a success of opportunities afforded by technology in online collaborative construction environments (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005; Laurillard, 2012). However, student digital fluency and autonomy within the learning environment, and ability to understand collaborative working modes are essential skills and attitudes. Casey and Evans (2011) found students could take control of many aspects of learning and this supported a communities of practice model. Moving into the age of online collaboration means understanding the importance of contribution and shared practice, including shared research and co-creation and a greater emphasis therefore on collaborative rather than individual inquiry (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006). The social nature of learning and online collaboration leads to the development of a ‘Community of Practice’ or CoP, a group of networked learners who share a craft and/or a profession (Wenger, 2000) and experiences are shaped by the many as opposed to the individual teacher (Wenger, White & Smith, 2009).
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